Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) needs no formal introduction, gaining global notoriety in the mid-20th century as an Italian politician who led the National Fascist Party in Italy and being one of the key figures in the creation of Fascism. Mussolini became the Prime Minister of Italy in 1922 and began going by the title Il Duce, adding on titles throughout the years until by the time World War II started, he was "His Excellency Benito Mussolini, Head of Government, Duce of Fascism, and Founder of the Empire."
Mussolini may have made the trains run on time, and he may have joined the Axis Powers, but it must also be said of him that he devoutly believed in the righteousness of Fascism. Mussolini was a founder of Italian Fascism, which included elements of nationalism, corporatism, national syndicalism, expansionism, social progress, and anti-socialism in combination with censorship of subversives and state propaganda.
Before he was famously executed summarily and strung upside down in Milan, Mussolini wrote The Doctrine of Fascism, setting out the tenets and policies of Italian Fascism.